What is a Crane & What are the Types of Cranes in Material Handling

Cranes offer a wide variety of alternatives for handling loads quickly and safely with efficiency. In other words, a crane’s primary use is to move things efficiently through several production processes. As per different industrial standards and material handling requirements, cranes can be classified into different types. Learn more about the different types of cranes along with their applications in different industries by reading this blog.

Types of Cranes in Material Handling

Manufactured products are the primary output of any industry and to simplify these processes, a variety of material handling tools are available. One of those is the cranes. The types of industrial cranes are broadly classified into static (fixed) cranes and mobile cranes. Here is all about these two types:

Static Cranes

Static cranes are semi-permanent or permanent types of cranes that are fixed at a particular location and can lift or move loads within a fixed span. The different types of static cranes are:

Overhead Cranes

As the name implies, in an overhead crane, there is a horizontal beam that moves up and down a runway on a track. Additionally, other lifting equipment like trolleys and hoists move horizontally along the beam to lower or lift loads. These cranes are also known as bridge cranes.

Bridge cranes are further classified into:

  • Single Girder and Double Girder
  • Top Running and Under Running

The single-girder bridge crane comprises one girder and can lift less weight than the double-girder crane. The double-girder bridge craneas the name implies, has two girders, and can lift more than the single-girder crane.

The bridge travels on rails along the top of the runway beams for a top-running crane. These cranes are capable of handling extremely small to very large capacities. With an under-running/underhung or underslung crane, the bridges are backed by the bottom of the runway beams and are generally made for applications that require a lighter weight and lower capacity.

The other common types of overhead cranes are as follows:

Gantry CranesA gantry crane is supported by a framework, which is often made of steel beams or a combination of steel and concrete. The framework can be mobile, allowing the crane to move along tracks or wheels, or it can be fixed in place. They are commonly used to lift and move containers, machinery, construction materials, and other heavy objects.

Jib Cranes: This is another type of overhead crane, usually employed for repetitive activities, and is permanently positioned over a workstation. Jib cranes come with a manual or electrically operated arm with rotating angles of 360° or 270°.

Monorail Cranes: Such a crane is widely used in manufacturing and assembling lines that carry the hoist along a single path using a trolley.

Workstation Cranes: This type of overhead crane is designed to move or lift loads within a smaller work area. With a load capacity of up to 2000 kg and a wheelbase suspension of up to 10 metres, it is a complete solution for all industrial and storage demands.

Other types of static cranes are:

Stacker Crane

Stacker cranes are customised products designed using the EOT crane principle. There is an additional vertical rotating mast with a fork that moves up and down. The design enables the system to travel, pick/drop items, and lower/lift things easily within the facility.

Tower Crane

The massive cranes that are visible next to the skyscraper structures are the tower cranes. These cranes are used to build tall structures (bridges, dams, large buildings, railways, etc). The primary components of tower cranes are a vertical tower (mast) and an outstretched jib.

Hammerhead Crane

The hammerhead cranes comprise a horizontal, swivelling lever that rests on a fixed tower. Such cranes are widely used in construction-related projects. Hammerhead cranes enable the trolley to move forward and backwards in a horizontal fashion along the crane arm.

Telescopic Cranes

Telescopic cranes consist of an arm (boom) fitted with a hydraulic cylinder. This enables the crane to change its length similar to a telescope. Due to this feature, telescopic cranes are commonly used in shipping ports and all sorts of marine works.

Mobile Cranes

The mobile crane type, in contrast to the static crane, is mounted on tracks or wheels and can be moved from one location to another. That is, these cranes are not restricted to a fixed path.

The different types of mobile cranes are:

Truck Cranes

As the name suggests, truck cranes or truck-mounted cranes can travel efficiently on the road due to their unique build. The two main parts of these cranes are the carrier, and the boom/arm. These are smaller in size and used for lifting lighter loads.

Crawler Cranes

Crawler cranes are one of the largest types of mobile cranes, which are used for heavy-duty lifting needs and can lift up to 2500 tons of weight. These are massive in size and require extensive on-site assembly support.

Rough Terrain Cranes

Rough terrain cranes, alsoabbreviated as “RT” cranes, are the type of cranes designed to be operated off-road, and on rough terrain with challenging environmental conditions. These cranes are equipped with telescopic booms & outriggers for enhanced stability and mobility in rough areas.

Carry Deck Cranes

These are 4-wheeled, small-size portable types of cranes. In comparison to the other cranes, these are simple to navigate around confined and easy to set up, making them a suitable option for several lifting and loading job sites.

To Conclude:

We hope this article on cranes and their various types helps you get an overview of the various types of cranes used across industries. 

If you are looking forward to purchasing a crane, we recommend you visit our website at indef.com. We serve a wide variety of cranes ranging from Single Girder EOT, Double Girder EOT to Semi Gantry, Full Gantry, Jib Crane, to Stacker Crane, Light Rail Systems and Crane kits.

You can mail us at enquire@indef.com or even call us at +91 (22) 489-33303 for more information.